Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders
For proper growth and normal health human beings require a regular supply of nutrients.Improper intake of food or nutrients results in the impairment of health.This is called malnutrition.Malnutrition refers to both undernutrition and overnutrition.
Excess intake of food and nutrients is called over nutrition.Excess food is stored in the body and increase body weight.When a particular nutrient is deficient for a long time in our food, it may lead to various deficiency diseases.
Disorders related to nutrition
Vitamin deficiency diseases
Absence of vitamins in the diet for a long period causes various deficiency diseases in man.Important vitamin deficiency diseases are the following
1) Night blindness
Vitamin A is responsible for the formation of visual pigments such as rhodopsin and iodopsin.Its deficiency leads to the production of less visual pigments.As a result, vision in the dim light become difficult.This is called Night blindness.
In children prolonged deficiency of Vit A causes the thickening of the cornea of the eyes and became opaque.This result in blindness.
Vit D is responsible for the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus.In growing children the deficiency of Vit D may result in weak,soft and thin bones due to the poor deposition of calcium and phosporus.This condition is called rickets.It is characterized by bent long bones,painful swellings on wrist, elbow and knee joints.
Prolonged Vitamin D deficiency in adults results in osteomalacia.It is characterized by the weak bones of the vertebral joints.pelvis gets bent and deformed by body weight.
5) Bleeding diseases
Vitamin K helps in the formation of prothrombin.Prothrombin helps in blood cloating.Deficiency of Vitamin K can cause delayed clotting of blood which results in bleeding..
Vitamin C is essential for maintaining connective tissue.Its deficiency may lead to fragile blood vessels due to the defective collagen fibres in their walls.It leads to the disease called scurvy.It is characterized by bleeding of gums, falling of teeth,fragile bones etc..Healing of wounds may be delayed..
Beriberi is characterized by the inflammation of peripherals nerves,weakness of limb muscle and paralysis.
Deficiency of nicotinamide result in pellagra.It is characterized by scaly pigmented skin of hands and legs and irritability.
9) Pernicious anaemia
Vit B12 ‘s deficiency results in the immature nucleated RBC without
haemoglobin,This is called Pernicious anaemia
10) Macrocytic anaemia
This is a type of anaemia caused due to the malformed RBC.It occurs due to deficiency of folic acid.
Other Deficiency Diseases
This is due to the deficiency of iron.In this condition, the number and size of RBC and amount of haemoglobin content reduces.
2) Protein-energy malnutrition
Protein-energy malnutrition is wide spread in many underdeveloped countries.It affects infants and children to produce marasmus and kwashiorkor
It is produced by the simultaneous deficiency of proteins and calories.In this condition protein deficiency impairs growth and replacement of tissue protein.So stored fats and tissue proteins are catabolised for energy production.This results in the extreme emaciation of the body and thinning of limbs.Ribs become very prominent .Skin becomes thin, dry and wrinkled.Growth rate and body weight decreases considerably.Growth and development of brain may be impared.Failure of digestion and absorption occurs.Diarrhoea may also occurs..
It is a protein deficiency disease unaccompanied by caloric deficiency.It is characterized by wasting muscles,thin limbs,retarded growth of the body and brain.Oedema and diarrhea are other symptoms.
Over nutrition also causes some problems like Obesity, High blood pressure, cardiac diseases etc…..that is we should have a balanced diet. Under nutrition and over nutrition are dangerous.So arrange your diet properly and avoid all the diseases..
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